Category Archives: News Article

Intervention By Bystanders Helps Put A Stop To Bullying

With new national anti-bullying ads urging parents to teach their kids to speak up if they witness bullying, one researcher has found that in humans’ evolutionary past at least, helping the victim of a bully hastened our species’ movement toward a more egalitarian society.

Humans have evolved a genetically-controlled drive to help weaker individuals fight back against a
bully. The drive to help the weaker group members led to a dramatic reduction in group inequality and eventually enabled humans to develop widespread cooperation, empathy, compassion and egalitarian moral values, according to the paper which appears in the Proceedings of the National Academy of

The findings appear to support prior research showing that more egalitarian societies, such as in Scandinavian countries, appear to keep bullying in check. In one of the earliest cross-national studies on bullying in
schools by professor Dan Olweus, who pioneered anti-bullying programs worldwide beginning in the early 1980s, the behavior was found to occur at lower rates in Denmark, Sweden and Norway. These findings are supported by additional, more recent studies by the National Institutes of Health and the World Health

Using a mathematical model, the paper’s author Sergey Gavrilets showed that differences in fighting abilities cause hierarchies to emerge where stronger individuals take away resources from weaker individuals.
However, when individuals realize greater benefits can occur if they prevent the transfer of resources from weaker individuals, a particular, genetically controlled psychology evolves that causes individuals to intervene on behalf of the victim. While intervening carries some risk, the helping pays off in the long term, ensuring that everyone’s resources remain equal, Gavrilets finds.

“Based on the results, helping the victim then is the evolutionary ‘right’ thing to do, not only from a victim’s point of view or a societal point of view but also the helper’s point of view. As such, I’d speculate that this is
also a psychologically rewarding thing to do in spite of the risks potentially involved,” said Gavrilets, who is the Associate Director for Scientific Activities at the National Institute for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis
and a professor at the University of Tennessee-Knoxville.

With almost one in five U.S. students reporting having been bullied sometimes or more often and a recent spate of teen suicides linked to bullying, the Obama administration has vowed to make anti-bullying a national priority and has endorsed the national ad campaign.

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Posted by on October 6, 2012 in News Article


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Vending Machine Takeover

I grew up watching The Jetsons. I loved the way they zipped from one place to another in their sky-cars. For me, growing up I always pictured that we would have flying cars in the year 2000. We all know that didn’t happen.

The other thing that impressed me was their food dispenser. Yeah, my priorities are right. Flee and eat! Anyway, they would just walk up to the machine and tell it what they wanted and Zippo! Food served, hot and fresh with no mess. “Look, Ma! No dishes!”

We had vending machines in those days for candy, snacks, drinks (mostly soda), and coffee. The coffee machine always impressed me the most because it MADE you the mixture you wanted: Black, cream, sugar, etc.

A month or two ago they announce a beer vending machine, my first thought was: “what about a Vodka and cranberry!”

Seriously, the next wave of future gadgets and gizmos will probably be more advanced vending machines. We already rent our movies this way and buy other merchandise this way, so why not fresh cooked food?

Man, why did it have to be my favorite food? I love pizza! I can eat it every day and not get tired of it. What is fascinating is this machine actually mixes the flour and water, kneads the dough, adds the sauce and topping. It then cooks the pizza for about three minutes, drops it into a 10.5” box and spits it out to the awaiting hungry person (that would be me).

I sincerely hope it tastes good. The problem. . .I love pizza so much I’d find myself passing a machine and ordering a ‘pie and sooner or later my middle will start looking like a pie!


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Earth’s Melting Land Ice

In the first comprehensive satellite study of its kind, a University of Colorado at Boulder-led team used NASA data to calculate how much Earth’s melting land ice is adding to global sea level rise.

Using satellite measurements from the NASA/German Aerospace Center Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), the researchers measured ice loss in all of Earth’s land ice between 2003 and 2010, with particular emphasis on glaciers and ice caps outside of Greenland and Antarctica.

The total global ice mass lost from Greenland, Antarctica and Earth’s glaciers and ice caps during the study period was about 4.3 trillion tons (1,000 cubic miles), adding about 0.5 inches (12 millimeters) to global sea level. That’s enough ice to cover the United States 1.5 feet (0.5 meters) deep.

“Earth is losing a huge amount of ice to the ocean annually, and these new results will help us answer important questions in terms of both sea rise and how the planet’s cold regions are responding to global change,” said University of Colorado Boulder physics professor John Wahr, who helped lead the study. “The strength of GRACE is it sees all the mass in the system, even though its resolution is not high enough to allow us to determine separate contributions from each individual glacier.”

About a quarter of the average annual ice loss came from glaciers and ice caps outside of Greenland and Antarctica (roughly 148 billion tons, or 39 cubic miles). Ice loss from Greenland and Antarctica and their peripheral ice caps and glaciers averaged 385 billion tons (100 cubic miles) a year. Results of the study will be published online Feb. 8 in the journal Nature.

Traditional estimates of Earth’s ice caps and glaciers have been made using ground measurements from relatively few glaciers to infer what all the world’s unmonitored glaciers were doing. Only a few hundred of the roughly 200,000 glaciers worldwide have been monitored for longer than a decade.

One unexpected study result from GRACE was the estimated ice loss from high Asian mountain ranges like the Himalaya, the Pamir and the Tien Shan was only about 4 billion tons of ice annually. Some previous ground-based estimates of ice loss in these high Asian mountains have ranged up to 50 billion tons annually.

“The GRACE results in this region really were a surprise,” said Wahr, who also is a fellow at the University of Colorado-headquartered Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences. “One possible explanation is that previous estimates were based on measurements taken primarily from some of the lower, more accessible glaciers in Asia and extrapolated to infer the behavior of higher glaciers. But unlike the lower glaciers, most of the high glaciers are located in very cold environments and require greater amounts of atmospheric warming before local temperatures rise enough to cause significant melting. This makes it difficult to use low-elevation, ground-based measurements to estimate results from the entire system.”

“This study finds that the world’s small glaciers and ice caps in places like Alaska, South America and the Himalayas contribute about .02 inches per year to sea level rise,” said Tom Wagner, cryosphere program scientist at NASA Headquarters in Washington. “While this is lower than previous estimates, it confirms that ice is being lost from around the globe, with just a few areas in precarious balance. The results sharpen our view of land ice melting, which poses the biggest, most threatening factor in future sea level rise.”

The twin GRACE satellites track changes in Earth’s gravity field by noting minute changes in gravitational pull caused by regional variations in Earth’s mass, which for periods of months to years is typically because of movements of water on Earth’s surface. It does this by measuring changes in the distance between its two identical spacecraft to one-hundredth the width of a human hair.

The GRACE spacecraft, developed by NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., and launched in 2002, are in the same orbit approximately 137 miles (220 kilometers) apart.


Posted by on February 8, 2012 in Earth Changes, Global Warming, NASA, News Article, Science


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Eyes of a Dog

Sit a dog in front of a television screen, and it may not always look intently at what it sees. But show a person on that screen who looks directly at the dog and says “hello,” and the canine will pay attention. In fact, a new study shows that a dog will go so far as to follow the gaze of the human on screen when he or she looks to one side or the other—something not even chimps can do.

Researchers already knew that dogs were attuned to human communication signals. In addition to their obvious facility at learning commands, dogs, like young children, can signal where a human puts an object if the human feigns ignorance, even if it’s been moved, and they follow the direction of our finger when we point at things, a task chimps fail at. But are dogs capable of following more subtle cues, such as our shifting gaze?

To find out, cognitive scientist Ernő Téglás of the Central European University in Budapest adapted a technique that had previously been used only on children. In one example of the test, a child watches a woman on a video screen who has toys on either side of her. The woman then either looks straight toward the camera and says “hello” in a high-pitched voice known to engage children or looks downward and says “hello” in a more dull, low-pitched voice. Then the person looks to the toy on one side or the other for 5 seconds. Whether a child also looks at the toy on the same side is recorded. To modify this experiment for dogs, Téglás substituted empty plastic pots for the children’s toys and had a stranger on the screen say “hi, dog!” in one of the two intonations while looking at the camera or downward. As each dog watches the video, a specially programmed camera below the television screen follows, and records, the dog’s eye movements.

Téglás and his colleagues used 22 dogs of different breeds for the study. They found that the canines always looked at the person on the video for the same amount of time. But when the person initially directed his or her attention at the dog and spoke in a high-pitched voice, the dog looked at the same pot as the person 69% of the time. When the person avoided eye contact and spoke in a low voice, the dog didn’t look at one pot more often than the other.

The results, published today in Current Biology, were almost identical to those seen in 6-month-old human infants. “We were surprised by the high similarity of the performances,” Téglás says. “Dogs are receptive to these cues in a way that is very similar to infants.”

The precision of the eye-tracking device will allow scientists to develop a new generation of tests on how dogs interact with humans, says Juliane Kaminski, a developmental psychologist at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, who was involved in earlier studies on how dogs interpret finger pointing. “It opens many new opportunities.”

Now that the scientists have shown that the test works on dogs, they plan to separate the two factors—eye contact and tone of voice—to test each one’s effect on the dog’s attention, Téglás says. They also can compare different dog breeds with each other. This may help answer the question of how dogs’ skills at interpreting human communication have evolved.

“Dog skills with human communication seem to be a special adaptation to live with humans and the result of certain selection pressures during domestication,” Kaminski says. If this is true, researchers would expect dog breeds that have been domesticated the longest to perform best at tests such as gaze following. But don’t plan on being able to compare your dog with all the other neighborhood canines—dogs likely interpret the cues from their owner differently than those from a stranger.

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Posted by on January 5, 2012 in News Article, Science


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Warning: Black Hole Dead Ahead!

Every starship captain knows the true prime directive: steer clear of black holes. Well it appears that one object didn’t get the memo. According to a new study, a small cloud of gas and dust is racing toward the black hole at the center of the Milky Way—and when it hits, be prepared for some astronomical fireworks.

The black hole, named Sagittarius A*, weighs 4 million times as much as our sun and is 27,000 light-years away. Every star in the Milky Way revolves around it. Our sun takes 230 million years to complete an orbit, but one known star is so close that it revolves around Sagittarius A* in just 16 years.

Now astronomers have spotted a new object near the black hole. Stefan Gillessen and Reinhard Genzel of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Garching, Germany, and their colleagues used the European Southern Observatory’s Very Large Telescope in Chile to observe the Milky Way’s center at infrared wavelengths, which penetrate the thick dust between it and us. The instrument picked up a small gas cloud that, over 9 years of observations, appeared to be getting closer and closer to Sagittarius A*. The astronomers detected the object at a wavelength of 3.76 microns but not at 2.16 microns. This indicates it is a cloud of gas and dust rather than a star, they say, because a star is so hot that it should be brighter at the shorter wavelength.

The cloud is about three times as massive as Earth, emits five times as much energy as the sun, and spans 250 times the distance from the Earth to the sun. Its temperature is about 550 kelvin—somewhat cooler than the surface of Venus. Sagittarius A*’s immense gravity is accelerating the cloud dramatically: in 2004, the cloud was hurtling toward the black hole at 1200 kilometers per second; by 2011, the speed had nearly doubled, reaching 2350 kilometers per second. At that velocity, an airplane could circle the Earth in 17 seconds.

The cloud will approach Sagittarius A* in the summer of 2013, when the center of the gas and dust will be 260 times as far from the black hole as Earth is from the sun. But as the cloud hits hot gas already orbiting the black hole, it will likely meet its end. “It became really exciting when we noticed in the 2011 data that the cloud is starting to be stretched like spaghetti,” Gillessen says. “So right in front of our eyes, we can see the black hole is destroying the cloud. The material will rain down into the black hole and release a tremendous amount of energy.” As pieces of the cloud fall into Sagittarius A* over the next decade, friction and gravity will heat them to temperatures of millions of degrees, producing x-rays , the team reports online today in Nature. Other astronomers have detected “echos” of x-rays near the galactic center—reflections of radiation that have lit up large clouds hundreds of light-years away and that likely arose when past clouds dove into the black hole and sparked outbursts of x-rays.

Astronomer Andrea Ghez of the University of California, Los Angeles, who has seen the same object in her data, wouldn’t bet her house on such drama unfolding, however. “A much more likely interpretation is that this is a star that has an infrared excess,” she says, noting that dust surrounding a star can absorb visible light and reemit it in at infrared wavelengths. If the object is merely a star, then it won’t fall into the black hole but will shoot past it as the star loops around Sagittarius A* every 140 years. Ghez says other stars with infrared excesses exist near the galactic center.

Who’s right? We’ll find out by 2013. If the object really is a gas cloud, the fireworks (at x-ray and infrared wavelengths) should reveal the extreme conditions that prevail around the galaxy’s biggest black hole — useful information not only for astronomers studying supermassive black holes in other galaxies but also for starship captains the next time they voyage to the Milky Way’s hub.


Posted by on December 14, 2011 in News Article, Science, Space


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FBI Ramps Up Next Generation ID Recognition

It may not be completed in our generation, but it is happenening today and will continue to progress each year. Our freedoms are being eroded the same way the ocean erodes our beaches. One grain at a time until we are stripped away of our freedoms. Eventually there won’t be a personal freedom. The government will be able to see and hear everything we say and do. Everything you do, everyone you talk to on the phone or the Internet will be recorded and catergorized under your profile. At the touch of a button some government offical can study your profile . . . and possible change some key information about you.

It won’t happen tomorrow, and when the project is complete our children’s children won’t think twice about it as this form of profiling is happening slowly, creeping upon us and suffocating us until there is nothing left of our individuality.

The following article is just one more step that the Elite will evenutally us to conquer us. is reporting that the FBI will begin rolling out its Next Generation Identification (NGI) facial recognition service as early as this January.  Once NGI is fully deployed and once each of its approximately 100 million records also includes photographs, it will become trivially easy to find and track Americans.

As we detailed in an earlier post, NGI expands the FBI’s IAFIS criminal and civil fingerprint database to include multimodal biometric identifiers such as iris scans, palm prints, photos, and voice data. The Bureau is planning to introduce each of these capabilities in phases (pdf, p.4) over the next two and a half years, starting with facial recognition in four states—Michigan, Washington, Florida, and North Carolina—this winter.

Why Should We Be Worried?

Despite the FBI’s claims to the contrary, NGI will result in a massive expansion of government data collection for both criminal and noncriminal purposes. IAFIS is already the largest biometric database in the world—it includes 70 million subjects in the criminal master file and more than 31 million civil fingerprints. Even if there are duplicate entries or some overlap between civil and criminal records, the combined number of records covers close to 1/3 the population of the United States. When NGI allows photographs and other biometric identifiers to be linked to each of those records, all easily searchable through sophisticated search tools, it will have an unprecedented impact on Americans’ privacy interests.

Although IAFIS currently includes some photos, they have so far been limited specifically to mug shots linked to individual criminal records. However, according to a 2008 Privacy Impact Assessment for NGI’s Interstate Photo System, NGI will allow unlimited submission of photos and types of photos. Photos won’t be limited to frontal mug shots but may be taken from other angles and may include close-ups of scars, marks and tattoos. NGI will allow all levels of law enforcement, correctional facilities, and criminal justice agencies at the local, state, federal and even international level to submit and access photos, and will allow them to submit photos in bulk. Once the photos are in the database, they can be found easily using facial recognition and text-based searches for distinguishing characteristics.

The new NGI database will also allow law enforcement to submit public and private security camera photos that may or may not be linked to a specific person’s record. This means that anyone could end up in the database—even if they’re not involved in a crime— by just happening to be in the wrong place at the wrong time or by, for example, engaging in political protest activities in areas like Lower Manhattan that are rife with security cameras.

The biggest change in NGI will be the addition of non-criminal photos. If you apply for any type of job that requires fingerprinting or a background check, your potential employer could require you to submit a photo to the FBI. And, as the 2008 PIA notes, “expanding the photo capability within the NGI [Interstate Photo System] will also expand the searchable photos that are currently maintained in the repository.” Although noncriminal information is ostensibly kept separate from criminal, all the data will be in the NGI system, and presumably it would not be difficult to search all the data at once. The FBI does not say whether there is any way to ever have your photo removed from the database.

Technological Advancements Support Even Greater Tracking Capabilities

According to an FBI presentation on facial recognition and identification initiatives (pdf, p.5) at a biometrics conference last year, one of the FBI’s goals for NGI is to be able to track people as they move from one location to another. Recent advancements in camera and surveillance technology over the last few years will support this goal. For example, in a National Institute of Justice presentation (pdf, p.17) at the same 2010 biometrics conference, the agency discussed a new 3D binocular and camera that allows realtime facial acquisition and recognition at 1000 meters. The tool wirelessly transmits images to a server, which searches them against a photo database and identifies the photo’s subject. As of 2010, these binoculars were already in field-testing with the Los Angeles Sheriff’s Department. Presumably, the backend technology for these binoculars could be incorporated into other tools like body-mounted video cameras or the MORIS (Mobile Offender Recognition and Information System) iPhone add-on that some police officers are already using.

Private security cameras and the cameras already in use by police departments have also advanced. They are more capable of capturing the details and facial features necessary to support facial recognition-based searches, and the software supporting them allows photo manipulation that can improve the chances of matching a photo to a person already in the database. For example, Gigapixel technology, which creates a panorama photo of lots of megapixel images stitched together (like those taken by security cameras), allows anyone viewing the photo to drill down to see and tag faces from even the largest crowd photos. And image enhancement software, already in use by some local law enforcement, can adjust photos“taken in the wild” (pdf, p.10) so they work better with facial recognition searches.

Cameras are also being incorporated into more and more devices that are capable of tracking Americans and can provide that data to law enforcement. For example, one of the largest manufacturers of highway toll collection systems recently filed a patent application to incorporate cameras into the transponder that sits on the dashboard in your car. This manufacturer’s transponders are already in 22 million cars, and law enforcement already uses this data to track subjects. While a patent application does not mean the company is currently manufacturing or trying to sell the devices, it certainly shows they’re interested.

Data Sharing and Publicly-Available Information Will Supplement the FBI’s Database

Data sharing between the FBI and other government agencies and the repurposing of photographs taken for noncriminal activities will further support the FBI’s ability to track people as they move from one location to another. At least 31 states have already started using some form of facial recognition with their DMV photos, generally to stop fraud and identity theft, and the Bureau has already worked with North Carolina, one of the four states in the NGI pilot program, to track criminals using the state’s DMV records. The Department of Justice came under fire earlier this year for populating the NGI database with non-criminal data from the Department of Homeland Security through the Secure Communities program and could be considering doing the same with facial-recognition ready DMV photos. Even if the FBI does not incorporate DMV photos en masse directly into NGI, the fact that most states allow law enforcement access to these records combined with the new expansion of the FBI’s own photo database, may make this point moot.

Commercial sites like Facebook that collect data and include facial recognition capabilities could also become a honeypot for the government. The FBI’s 2008 Privacy Impact Assessmentstated that the NGI/IAFIS photo database does not collect information from “commercial data aggregators,” however, the PIA acknowledges this information could be collected and added to the database by other NGI users like state and local law enforcement agencies. Further, the FBI’s 2010 facial recognition presentation (pdf, p.5) notes another goal of NGI is to “Identify[ ] subjects in public datasets.” If Facebook falls into the FBI’s category of a public dataset, it may have almost as much revealing information as a commercial data aggregator.

The Problem of False Positives in Large Data Sets

As the FBI’s facial recognition database gets larger and as more agencies at every level of government rely on facial recognition to identify people, false positives—someone being misidentified as the perpetrator of a crime—will become a big problem. As this 2009 report (pdf) by Helen Nissenbaum and Lucas Introna notes, facial recognition

performs rather poorly in more complex attempts to identify individuals who do not voluntarily self-identify . . . Specifically, the “face in the crowd” scenario, in which a face is picked out from a crowd in an uncontrolled environment, is unlikely to become an operational reality for the foreseeable future.

(p. 3). The researchers go on to note that this is not necessarily because the technology is not good enough but because “there is not enough information (or variation) in faces to discriminate over large populations.” (p.47) In layman’s terms, this means that because so many people in the world look alike, the probability that any facial recognition system will regularly misidentify people becomes much higher as the data set (the population of people you are checking against) gets larger. German Federal Data Protection Commissioner Peter Schaar has noted false positives in facial recognition systems pose a large problem for democratic societies. “[I]n the event of a genuine hunt, [they] render innocent people suspects for a time, create a need for justification on their part and make further checks by the authorities unavoidable.”(p.37)

It appears it will take a few years for the FBI to bring NGI up to its full potential. In the meantime, we will continue to monitor this troubling trend.


Posted by on October 24, 2011 in News Article, Science


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Return of a Killer Volcano

I have been following volcanoes for awhile now, and we are long overdue for a large explosion from several monsters around the globe. Yellowstone happens to be only one of them. I often wonder if humankind can survive such a catastrophic eruption as it would mean banding together, helping each other, giving to one another. In such an event would we be able to tear our inner walls down and help someone despite their race, color, sex, sexual preference, religion? I know I could, and many of the people I am close to. But I worry. . .

Photograph by Sigurdur Hrafn Stefnisson


What if one of the largest volcanic eruptions in recent history happened today? A new study suggests that a blast akin to one that devastated Iceland in the 1780s would waft noxious gases southeastward and kill tens of thousands of people in Europe. And in a modern world that is intimately connected by air traffic and international trade, economic activity across much of Europe, including the production and import of food, could plummet.

From June of 1783 until February of 1784, the Laki volcano in south-central Iceland erupted. Although the event didn’t produce large amounts of volcanic ash, it did spew an estimated 122 million metric tons of sulfur dioxide gas into the sky—a volume slightly higher than human industrial activity today produces in the course of a year, says Anja Schmidt, an atmospheric scientist at the University of Leeds in the United Kingdom.

Historical records suggest that in the 2 years after the Laki eruption, approximately 10,000 Icelanders died—about one-fifth of the population—along with nearly three-quarters of the island’s livestock. Parish records in England reveal that in the summer of 1783, when the event began, death rates were between 10% and 20% above normal. The Netherlands, Sweden, and Italy reported episodes of decreased visibility, respiratory difficulties, and increased mortality associated with the eruption. According to one study, an estimated 23,000 people died from exposure to the volcanic aerosols in Britain alone. But elsewhere in Europe, it’s difficult to separate deaths triggered by the air pollution from those caused by starvation or disease, which were prominent causes of death at the time.

To assess how such an eruption might affect the densely populated Europe of today, Schmidt and her colleagues plugged a few numbers into a computer simulation. They used weather models to estimate where sulfur dioxide emissions from an 8-month-long eruption that commenced in June would end up. They also estimated the resulting increases in the concentrations of airborne particles smaller than 2.5 micrometers across, the size of aerosols that are most easily drawn into human lungs and that cause cardiopulmonary distress. Then, they used modern medical data to estimate how many people those aerosols would kill.

In the first 3 months after the hypothetical eruption began, the average aerosol concentration over Europe would increase by 120%, the team reports online today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The number of days during the eruption in which aerosol concentrations exceed air-quality standards would rise to 74, when a normal period that length typically includes only 38. Not surprisingly, the air would become thickest with dangerous particles in areas downwind of the eruption, such as Iceland and northwestern Europe, where aerosol concentrations would more than triple. But aerosol concentrations in southern Europe would also increase dramatically, rising by 60%.

In the year after the hypothetical eruption commences, the increased air pollution swept from Iceland to Europe would cause massive amounts of heart and lung disease, killing an estimated 142,000 people. Fewer than half that number of Europeans die from seasonal flu each year.

At least four Laki-sized eruptions have occurred in Iceland in the past 1150 years, Schmidt and her colleagues say. So the new figures are cause for concern.

The team “has done a good job of showing where volcanic aerosols would end up, and the human health response to such aerosols is well understood,” says Brian Toon, an atmospheric scientist at the University of Colorado, Boulder. “This is all very solid science.”

Icelandic volcanoes shut down European air traffic for more than a week in April 2010 and for several days in May of this year. But those eruptions are tiny compared with a Laki-sized eruption, which could ground airplanes for 6 months or more, says Alan Robock, an atmospheric scientist at Rutgers University in New Brunswick, New Jersey. Such an event would have a huge impact on crop yields and, by affecting shipping and air traffic, would also affect Europeans’ ability to import food, he notes. It could even have a dramatic effect on daily life, he says. “If there are sulfur dioxide clouds over Europe, people with respiratory problems can’t do much about it except stay indoors.”

*This article has been corrected. In the first paragraph and in the image caption, compass directions were originally misstated and should have read southeastward and southeastern, respectively.

by Sid Perkins


Posted by on September 23, 2011 in News Article, Photo, Science


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